Coastal Air-Sea Chemical Fluxes
The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported four collaborative research proposals that were submitted in response to an Announcement of Opportunity for research on Coastal Air-Sea Chemical Fluxes. The CoOP Scientific Steering Committee suggested that making improvements in the ability to estimate chemical fluxes in coastal regions is a high research priority, and it recommended that a field effort be initiated to develop a quantitative, mechanistic understanding of how gases and other materials are transported between the coastal atmosphere and ocean.
There appeared to be a mutually beneficial opportunity to coordinate the NSF/CoOP research effort with the Office of Naval Research-sponsored Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) Research Initiative planned for 1995. The ONR effort focused on air-sea momentum fluxes to provide a critical set of difficult base measurements on atmospheric and oceanic turbulence upon which the NSF/CoOP research could be built. In fact, with the addition of the CoOP research, the scope of the MBL project expanded from its original focus on the intermittent processes associated with atmospheric and oceanic surface layers and air-sea momentum exchange. The expanded project included both basic and applied research, and the fluxes encompass momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, aerosol, and gas. NSF and Minerals Management Service (MMS) were key partners in the total effort, where the NSF/CoOP Air-Sea Chemical Flux project focused on air-sea gas exchange and MMS focused on the surface flux and Langmuir circulation dynamics. ONR's research effort focused on exchange of momentum, heat, and aerosols, and the dynamics of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers.
The first ONR experiment was conducted off Santa Barbara, and involved FLIP from 15 February through 15 March, 1995. The second field experiment was conducted from mid-April to mid-May 1995 and involved FLIP, three ships, and the NOAA LongEZ aircraft. FLIP was moored at 36.40° N, 122.30° W, and this served as the geographic focal point for the experiment. This site was chosen to accommodate the coastal research requirements of NSF/CoOP and the marine conditions for ONR.
Project Titles and Principal Investigators
- Richard C. Dugdale and Frances Wilkerson, San Francisco State University; and Francisco P. Chavez and G. Friederich, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: "Coastal air-sea fluxes of CO2: nutrients and the biological pump." For more information, visit the Project web site.
- Erik J. Bock, James B. Edson, Nelson M. Frew, Wade R. McGillis, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Bernd Jahne, Scripps; and Tetsu Hara, University of Rhode Island: "Air-sea gas transfer in coastal waters."
- Michael D. DeGrandpre and William J. Jenkins, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; and Creighton Wirick, Brookhaven National Laboratory: "Air-sea exchange of CO2, O2, and noble gases in coastal waters."
- John W.H. Dacey and Catherine Goyet, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: "Dynamics and sea-air exchange of dimethylsulfide and carbon dioxide in coastal waters."
Publications and Abstracts (reprints available by contacting the author)
PROJECT: Coastal air-sea fluxes of CO2: nutrients and the biological pump
1. Brzezinski, M. A., D. R. Phillips, F. P. Chavez, R. C. Dugdale, G. E. Friederich. 1998. Silica production in the Monterey California upwelling system. Limnol. Oceanogr.,42:1694-1705.
2. Kudela, R.M. and F.P. Chavez (1997). Estimating new production from the quantum yield of nitrate uptake. SPIE Vol. 2963, Ocean Optics XIII, 471-476.
3. Wilkerson, F.P. and R.C. Dugdale. 1997. The effect of El Niño on coastal new production. In: California and the World Ocean '97, pp. 1554-1562.
PROJECT: Air-sea gas transfer in coastal waters
1. Hanson, K.A., T. Hara, E.J. Bock and A.B. Karachintsev (1997). Estimation of directional surface wave spectra from a towed research catamaran. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,14:1467-1482.
2. Hara, T., E.J. Bock, J.B. Edson and W.R. McGillis (1998). Observation of short wind waves in coastal waters. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28:1425-1438.
3. Jahne, B. and H. Haubecker (1998). Air-water gas exchange. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.,30:443-468.
4. McGillis, W., J. Edson and J. Dacey (1998). Observing air-sea gas fluxes over coastal waters. Coastal Research Newsletter, Issue 2, p. 5, Rinehart Coastal Research Center, WHOI.
5. Bock, E. and W. McGillis (submitted). Optical characterization of the air-sea interface. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech.
6. Frew, N.M. and R. K. Nelson (1999). Spatial mapping of sea surface microlayer surfactant concentration and composition. In: Proceedings of the 1999 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, T. I. Stein (ed.), IEEE Publications, Piscataway, NJ, Vol.3, pp. 1472-1474.
7. N.M. Frew, E.J. Bock, R.K. Nelson, W.R. McGillis, J.B. Edson and T. Hara (1999). Spatial variations in surface microlayer surfactants and their role in modulating air-sea exchange. Abstracts, 13th Symposium onf Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 79th Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dallas, Texas, pp. 421-424.
8. Bock, E.J., J.W.H. Dacey, J.B. Edson, N.M. Frew, T. Hara and W.R. McGillis (1999). Air-sea gas exchange in coastal waters. Abstracts, 13th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 79th Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dallas, Texas, pp. 417-420.
9. Edson, J.B., W.R. McGillis and N.M. Frew (1999). Atmospheric forcing and energy exchange during the 1997 CoOP gas exchange experiment. Abstracts, 13th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 79th Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dallas, Texas, pp. 351-354.
10. W.R. McGillis, E.J. Bock, J.E. Edson, N.M. Frew and T. Hara (1999). Near-subsurface shear and dissipation observations in the coastal ocean. Abstracts, 13th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 79th Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dallas, Texas, pp. 355-358.
11. J.W.H. Dacey, J.B. Edson, P. M. Holland and W.R. McGillis (1999). In situ estimation of air-sea gas transfer using DMS. Abstracts, 13th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 79th Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dallas, Texas, pp. 425-426.
12. B. M. Uz, H. Wei, T. Hara and E.J. Bock (1999). Surface waves and air-sea fluxes during CoOP. Abstracts, 13th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, 79th Meeting of the American Meteorological Society, Dallas, Texas, pp. 349-350.
PROJECT: Air-sea exchange of CO2, O2, and noble gases in coastal waters
1. DeGrandpre, M.D., W.R. McGillis, N.M. Frew and E.J. Bock (1995). Laboratory measurements of seawater CO2 gas fluxes. In: Proc. of the 3rd Int. Symp. on Air-Water Gas Transfer, B. Jahne, E.C. Monahan (Eds.), AEON Publi., p. 375-383.
2. DeGrandpre, M.D., T.R. Hammar and C.D. Wirick (1998). Short term pCO2 and O2 dynamics in California coastal waters. Deep-Sea Research II,45:1557-1575.
3. DeGrandpre, M.D. and M.M. Baehr (1999). Calibration-free optical chemical sensors. Anal. Chem. 71:1152-1159.
PROJECT: Dynamics and sea-air exchange of dimethylsulfide and carbon dioxide in coastal waters
1. Ledyard, K.M. and J.W.H. Dacey (1996). Kinetics of DMSP-lyase activity in coastal seawater. In: Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMSP and Related Sulfonium Compounds, R.P. Kiene et al. (Eds.), Plenum Press, New York.
2. Dacey, J.W.H., J.B. Edson, P.M. Holland and W.R. McGillis (1998). In situ estimation of air-sea gas transfer using DMS. American Meteorological Society, 13th Symposium on BLT, 6A.8.