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Posted:
6/9/2016
Author:
mikesullivan
Description:

JoCasta Green became a teacher after she was told as a child she couldn’t be a scientist because she was a girl. In May, the pre-K teacher from Decatur, Georgia, achieved a small piece of her childhood dream by joining a research cruise on board the University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography’s Research Vessel Savannah. Green was one of two teachers on the overnight cruise, some of the first to participate in a cooperative program between UGA Skidaway Institute and Georgia Southern University’s Institute for Interdisciplinary STEM Education (i2STEMe).

“Because I am an elementary teacher, I was afraid that maybe I shouldn’t have applied,” Green said. “However, once I got here and everyone was so interested and wanted to share, I really did learn a lot.”

 JoCasta Green (right) learns how to prepare a conductivity-temperature-depth sensor array for deployment with the help of Natalia Lopez Figueroa from Hampton University.

 

UGA Skidaway Institute scientist Marc Frischer led the cruise with the aim to hunt, collect and study doliolids -- a small gelatinous organism of great significance to the ecology and productivity of continental shelf environments around the world. Green and middle school teacher Vicki Albritton of Savannah were the only teachers on board and were able to actively participate in the research activities.

“I think giving any teacher the opportunity come to out to sea is an amazing experience,” Frischer said. “I think it’s transformative, but to have them integrated into the research, we haven’t really done that before.”

Green and Albritton participated in the deck activities. They helped launch the CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensor packages mounted on heavy metal frames and deployed plankton nets that concentrated a wide variety of tiny marine creatures into a small container. The two teachers then worked with the science team in the darkened wet lab to sort through gallons of water and to isolate the doliolids they were seeking. 

“I was hoping to see science in action, and I did that all day long,” Albritton said. “I got to participate and learn what was going on and take many pictures, and now I have a wealth of information to take back to the classroom.”

Albritton says an experience like the cruise raises teachers’ credibility in the classroom, because the students see the teachers going out to learn more themselves. “If I want them to be perpetual learners, then I need to demonstrate that same trait,” she said.

Although Green admitted she was nervous about the cruise initially, she credited the scientists with making her comfortable. “They were great teachers,” she said. “I understood what we were doing and why we were doing it.”

Albritton echoed Green’s thoughts and cited the graciousness of everyone she encountered on the cruise. “There wasn’t condescension or an implication that we didn’t know anything,” she said. “There was genuine respect for all of us as professionals in our fields. That was really wonderful.”

A research cruise on the 92-foot R/V Savannah will never be confused with a luxury vacation cruise. Green and Albritton agreed the food was good, but the working spaces were tight and the bunks and cabins even more so.

Green and Albritton were the second group of teachers to join an R/V Savannah research cruise through the partnership with Georgia Southern’s i2STEMe program. The goal of the i2STEMe program is to improve the teaching and learning of science, technology, engineering and mathematics at all levels from kindergarten through college throughout coastal Georgia.

The partnership between UGA Skidaway Institute and i2STEMe is expected to grow. Five additional doliolid cruises are scheduled this year with space available for as many as four teachers on each cruise. UGA Skidaway Institute will also offer two half-day cruises this month as part of i2STEMe’s summer professional development workshop for teachers.

According to Frischer, the ultimate goal of scientific research is to generate and communicate information. “Teachers are some of our most important communicators,” he said. “They communicate to the next generation, so I think it is really special to be able to bring teachers right to where the research is happening. It gives them a total perspective, not only on what we are doing, but how research works and to communicate that to their students.”

Both Green and Albritton said they would encourage their fellow teachers to take advantage of opportunities like this. “You would be crazy not to, in terms of learning and what you can bring back to the kids in your classroom,” Albritton said. “It’s an experience you will never forget.”

 The cruise was part of a research project, The Cryptic Diet of the Globally Significant Pelagic Tunicate Dolioletta Gegenbauri, funded by a grant (Grant numbers OCE 1459293 & OCE 1459510) from the National Science Foundation’s Biological Oceanography program. The grant includes two ship days per year to support broader impact goals of providing experiential learning opportunities for educators.

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Posted:
6/6/2016
Author:
mikesullivan
Description:

How much of a nutrient load is too much for Georgia’s coastal rivers and estuaries? A research team from University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography is helping Georgia’s Environmental Protection Division answer that question. Their primary focus is on the estuary at the mouth of the Ogeechee River, where the researchers are measuring nutrient concentrations and other water properties to determine how they change as they flow through the estuary.

The nutrients are chemicals like nitrates and phosphates typically introduced into the rivers by agricultural runoff, storm water or sewage effluents, and the natural decay of organic matter in the river. When present in high concentrations, the nutrients act as fertilizer, promoting excessive growth of marine plants, especially microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

“The Georgia EPD wants to know how much nitrogen is coming down the river and whether it has any consequences when it gets to the estuary,” said UGA Skidaway Institute scientist William Savidge. “It doesn’t really matter if you have high nutrient concentrations if it is not having a harmful effect.”Elsewhere on the East Coast, excessive nutrients in estuaries have been linked to toxic algal blooms that can cause fish kills or shellfish closures. Death and decay of algal blooms by bacteria can drive oxygen concentrations down to levels that are unhealthy for other marine life. These are not presently known to be significant problems in Georgia’s waters, but scientists and regulators do not know what the thresholds are for developing water quality problems.

The EPD is interested in these issues because they are mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency to set limits on nutrient levels for Georgia’s estuaries. Savidge describes the mandate as a difficult problem for several reasons.

“There is not any current and systematic information on nutrient conditions in most of the estuaries,” he said, “nor is there much information on the consequences of nutrient availability in the estuaries, and it’s those consequences that are the most important.”

As they expected, Savidge and his team observed a wide range of conditions depending on the season. Nutrient inputs tend to be highest in the spring when agricultural fields are fertilized.They are currently mapping the biological and chemical properties of the Ogeechee River estuary each season to assess the nutrient changes throughout the year and to see what effects can be seen in the river and the estuary. Twice every quarter for the last year, the researchers have followed the incoming tide and sampled the river continuously as they moved upstream from the mouth of the estuary to fresh water. They used an onboard set of sensors to obtain continuous surface measurements of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll (indicative of phytoplankton), turbidity and colored dissolved organic matter. In addition to the continuous surface measurements, the team stopped periodically and collected water samples from the bottom and throughout the water column. The product of each of these expeditions was a detailed map of conditions on the river, and when and where they are changing.

“Nutrient delivery is high in the spring, but we don’t have a high chlorophyll concentration in the Ogeechee River because, presumably, the nutrients are being washed off into the coastal ocean before any effect is noticed,” Savidge said

On the other hand, chlorophyll levels -- which indicate phytoplankton population -- are highest in the summer. Low summer river flow means water remains in the system longer. When combined with more sunlight and warmer temperatures, this slow flow this allows more time for the microscopic plants to grow.

In addition to sampling the Ogeechee River, the team is also conducting a smaller sampling project in the Altamaha River for comparison purposes.

Field work on the project will end in June, and Savidge expects to report the team’s findings to Georgia EPD by mid-summer.

“The Georgia EPD is going to have to balance the potential negative risks of nutrient loading versus the economic consequences of restricting nutrient additions,” Savidge said. “If, for example, most of the nutrient additions are agricultural, and that is creating problems downstream, the Georgia EPD may be forced by EPA to regulate nutrient additions, either by restricting how much fertilizer is placed on fields or mandating larger buffer zones around rivers and creeks.”

In addition to Savidge, the research team includes UGA Skidaway Institute scientists Jay Brandes and Aron Stubbins, research associate Kate Doyle and graduate student Lixin Zhu. UGA researchers Brock Woodson and Mandy Joye are also contributing.

Tools:
Posted:
6/2/2016
Author:
mikesullivan
Description:

 Savannah, Ga. -- As the 2016 Georgia shrimping season gets underway, the University of Georgia Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant, and the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography will host a meeting to present the latest research and other information on black gill in Georgia and South Carolina shrimp. The meeting will be held at the UGA Marine Extension Aquarium at the north end of Skidaway Island in Savannah, Ga. on Wednesday, June 22, from 1-4 p.m.

Black gill is a condition affecting the coastal shrimp population. It is caused by a microscopic parasite. Many shrimpers believe black gill may be largely responsible for reduced shrimp harvests in recent years. UGA Skidaway Institute scientist Marc Frischer is leading a research project, now in its third year, into the causes and effects of black gill on the Georgia and South Carolina shrimp population.

The purpose of the meeting is to provide stakeholders, such as shrimpers, fish house owners, wholesalers or anyone else interested in black gill, with an update on black gill research efforts.  Frischer and South Carolina Department of Natural Resources scientist Amy Fowler and will present their latest research findings. UGA Marine Extension and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources will also provide updates. The meeting will be open to the public.

The meeting is for information purposes only. No management decisions will be made.

For additional information, contact Bryan Fluech, UGA Marine Extension, at (912) 264-7269.

What: Black Gill Stakeholders Meeting

When: Wednesday, June 22, 1-4: p.m.

Where: UGA  Aquarium, 30 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Ga., 31411

Directions: http://marex.uga.edu/visit_aquarium/

Tools:

Upcoming Event
What:
SkIO Seminar: Introduction to COS-Pivot
Who:
Ian Thomas, UGA Reference/Science Librarian
When:
7/22/2016 11:00 am
Where:
MCSRIC Conference Room, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography
Type:
Public
Description:

Ian Thomas (UGA Reference/Science Librarian) will be giving an introduction to COS-Pivot, a grant finding resource that is subscribed to at UGA. He will cover creating an account, creating a profile, and share basic searching techniques for utilizing this resource effectively.

Tools:

Publications
Kujawinski, E. B., M. A. Moran, A. Stubbins, and R. Fatland. 2016. The ocean microbiome: Metabolic engine of the marine carbon cycle: Sea-surface microorganisms fix carbon dioxide, fueling a dynamic community of heterotrophic bacteria at the surface and in the depths of the ocean. Microbe 11(6): 262-267. doi: 10.1128/microbe.11.262.1
Hansel, C. M., C. Buchwald, J. M. Diaz, J. E. Ossolinski, S. T. Dyhrman, B. A. S. Van Mooy, and D. Polyviou. 2016. Dynamics of extracellular superoxide production by Trichodesmium colonies from the Sargasso Sea. Limnology and Oceanography (pagination pending). doi:10.1002/lno.10266
Hawkes, A. D., A. C. Kemp, J. P. Donnelly, B. P. Horton, W. R. Peltier, N. Cahill, D. F. Hill, E. Ashe, and C. R. Alexander. 2016. Relative sea-level change in northeastern Florida (USA) during the last ~8.0 ka. Quaternary Science Reviews 142:90-101. doi: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.04.016
Paffenhöfer, G. -A., and H. Jiang. 2016. On phytoplankton perception by calanoid copepods. Limnology and Oceanography (pagination pending). doi: 10.1002/lno.10294
Schaffner, L. C., T. W. Hartley, and J. G. Sanders. 2016. Moving forward: 21st century pathways to strengthen the ocean science workforce through graduate education and professional development. Oceanography 29(1): 36-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.09
 
 
 
 
 
 
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