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Austria France Brazil Germany Italy Monaco Netherlands Norway Portugal
For five years, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography has collaborated with the Fachhochschule Hagenberg (FHH) in Austria to offer internships to their computer science university students. Over the past years, Hagenberg has developed into a national center of computing and software development with a high international reputation. The College of Information Technology is located in modern facilities and boasts excellent equipment and infrastructure.

In 2001, the Institute entered into a formal scientific and educational agreement of cooperation with Fundação Universidad do Rio Grande (FURG), in Rio Grande, near the Uruguay border in Southern Brazil. The purpose of this agreement is to increase the development of research to further the progress of marine science via exchange of researchers, teachers and postdoctoral students.

Left to right, Prof. Felipe Niencheski, Dr. Herbert Windom, Dr. Richard Jahnke, Director and Professor Carlos Rodolfo Brandão Hartmann and Prof. Milton Asmus
Left to right, Simoni Zarzur, Felipe Niencheski, and Captain Paulo Borges

As a collaborator in a five-year, U.S. NSF MedFlux project, Dr. Stuart Wakeham and colleagues from several US universities have worked with marine biogeochemists at the Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Géochimie et Ecologies Marines in Marseilles, France and the Marine Environment Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Laboratory in Monaco. Along with LMGEM scientists Drs. Madeleine Goutx and Christian Tamburini, and IAEA scientists Drs. Juan Carlos Miquel and Scott Fowler, a series of MedFlux cruises, several on the French research vessel Tethys II, studied particle dynamics and biogeochemistry in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Several principal investigators meetings have been held at LMGEM in Marseilles .

Dr. Madeleine Goutx (left) with MedFlux colleague Cindy Lee, during a visit to SkIO

In both 2006 and 2007, Dr. Wakeham spent several months in the LMGEM laboratory with a fellowship as a Research Investigator sponsored by the French Centre National de la Researches Scientifique (CNRS). A collaboration has also developed with Dr. Jean-François Rontani, whose research investigates photochemical and biological degradation of particulate organic substances.

French research vessel Tethys II






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Marum Building
The MARUM (Center for Marine Environmental Sciences ) of the University of Bremen studies the role of the oceans in the Earth's systems, including the ocean's role in global change. Since 2005, Dr. Stuart Wakeham has collaborated with members of the Organic Geochemistry group led by Prof. Kai-Uwe Hinrichs. The Organic Geochemistry group uses information held by specific organic molecules (molecular biomarkers) to study geoscience problems in biogeochemistry and geobiology in contemporary and ancient environments. Dr. Wakeham and post-doctoral investigator Courtney Turich (photo) have developed collaborative projects with MARUM graduate students Florence Schubotz (photo) and Julius Lipp to investigate intact polar lipids as indicators of bacterial and archaeal stratification, microbial community composition, and carbon cycling processes in suboxic and anoxic marine environments such as the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin . Dr. Wakeham's studies are supported by the US National Science Foundation and by a fellowship from the Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg (Institute for Advanced Studies, Delmenhorst , Germany ).
Left to right, Florence Schubotz, Dr. Stuart G. Wakeham, Dr. Courtney Turich

The Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology (MPI) in Bremen was founded in 1992 and investigates the role, diversity and features of microorganisms, especially of bacteria, and their interaction with physical and chemical processes in marine and other aquatic habitats. The activity of microorganisms in these habitats is indispensable for the maintenance of the global cycles of the elements. Dr. Stuart Wakeham of SkIO spent a 6-month sabbatical leave at the MPI in 2003 working on a project linking the biogeochemistry of organic matter and microbial ecology in the Black Sea. Under the auspices of Prof. Bo Barker Jørgensen, Director of the MPI, Dr. Wakeham worked closely with Dr. Rudi Amann, head of the Molecular Ecology group, and Dagmar Woebken, a graduate student, who taught Dr. Wakeham the intricacies of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as a tool for evaluating microbial diversity in the Black Sea.

Since 1997 the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography has supported student research interns from the University of Applied Sciences in Biotechnology in Mannheim, Germany. Biotechnology and chemistry students working toward the equivalent of bachelor's and master's degrees in engineering are required to spend at least one six month term participating in practical training internships. Research labs at SkIO provide the opportunity for these students to explore applications of biotechnology and chemistry to basic and applied research in the marine sciences. Students participate in internship projects within individual investigators labs and are supported by research stipends. Typically, one to five students are in residence at Skidaway per semester. Over twenty students from Mannheim, thus far, have completed internships at SkIO. Students from Mannheim contribute substantially to ongoing research and enhance the Skidaway community with their skills, creativity, and cultural perspectives.

Universities of Applied Sciences or as they are called in German, Fachhochschules, do not have an equivalent institution in the US. The primary mission of these universities is the training of highly-qualified, responsible, independently-minded and critical graduates who are able to present, discuss and implement solutions. After graduation, students typically follow careers in the private sector although students are not restricted from pursuing academic careers. The Fachhochschule in Mannheim specializes in the training of biotechnology students.

For more information about this program please contact Dr. Marc Frischer.

Cooperation between the SkIO and the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn in Napoli, Italy was initiated in 1994 when Dr. G.-A. Paffenhöfer was invited for a keynote presentation on marine zooplankton ecology. In 1995, Dr. Maria Grazia Mazzocchi visited SkIO for eight months to conduct laboratory studies on oceanic planktonic copepods. This cooperation between Drs. Mazzochi and Paffenhöfer was strengthened with long-term oceanographic research on the ecology of subtropical/tropical open ocean copepods resulting in three cruises to Bermuda (2000) and Puerto Rico (2001, 2002). Analysis of fine-scale zooplankton vertical distribution samples from these cruises are near completion. The findings from their oceanographic and experimental studies are presently being evaluated in order to design similar efforts in the Mediterranean Sea.

Dr. Stuart Wakeham has teamed up with a group of US and European oceanographers to study particle dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. During 2003, four cruises took place off Monaco to the French JGOFS "DYFAMED" site. The research group was sponsored in Monaco by Drs. Scott Fowler, Juan-Carlos Miquel, and Beat Gasser of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) at Monaco. US participants included Meaghan Askea from Skidaway, Drs. Cindy Lee, Robert Armstrong, and Kirk Cochran, and graduate students Zhanfei Liu and Gillian Stewart, all of the State University of New York-Stony Brook, and Michael Peterson of the University of Washington. Other European participants included Dr. Madeleine Goutx of CNRS, Marseilles, France, and Dr. Pere Masque of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain. The goals of the research program are to investigate the relationship between particulate organic matter and inorganic minerals in the upper 1000 m of the ocean. Sediment traps were used to collect particulate matter in the water column. The DYFAMED site was chosen because there is a 10-year time-series of data there, and it is a deep water site (2000m) that is easily accessible from Monaco, being only 50 km offshore.

Aerial Shot of Monaco

A long-term collaboration continues between Stuart Wakeham's Organic Biogeochemistry group at Skidaway Institute and Drs. Jaap Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten, Ellen Hopmans and Marco Coolen of the Department of Marine Biogeochemistry and Toxicology of The Royal Netherlands Institute of Sea Research (NIOZ) on the island of Texel. NIOZ was founded in 1876 and is one or Europe's oldest oceanographic institutions, with a mission to conduct multidisciplinary marine research in coastal and shelf seas. Several scientific exchange visits have taken place between SkIO and NIOZ, and a number of joint papers have been published examining diagnostic lipid biomarkers for understanding marine biogeochemical cycles and, recently, distributions of marine archaea. Of particular recent interest is using archaeal biomarkers and their stable carbon isotope signatures to investigate the anaerobic oxidation of methane in the Black Sea.
University of Bergen

Land-based Mesocosm Laboratory
Floating Mesocosm Laboratory
Typically 10-12 of our students and technical staff travel to Norway for these collaborative studies, and other colleagues at the University of Bergen and from additional countries join us for these 5-week experiments.

As part of these studies, Dr. Jens Nejstgaard received a very prestigious fellowship from the Norwegian Research Council to spend one year at SkIO developing state-of-the-art molecular biology protocols to quantify how much food of what types are eaten by zooplankton feeding on Phaeocystis and competing phytoplankton.
Active collaboration between SkIO and three universities in Portugal has existed since 1995. The program consists of a combination of research and teaching programs as well as an exchange of faculty and students. SkIO faculty member, Jack Blanton, was awarded a Fulbright Senior Fellowship to pursue teaching and research at the University of Lisbon (Universidade de Lisboa). This collaboration has been made possible through generous support from Fundação Luso-Americana para Desenvolvimento (FLAD) and the US Fulbright Commission.
Through a Fulbright Grant, Blanton spent seven months at the University of Lisbon's Laboratório Maritimo da Guia Marine Laboratory where he taught a course in coastal physical oceanography. He also worked jointly with Prof. Andrade conducting research on a coastal plain estuary in southern Portugal. This collaboration has resulted in three publications on transport and mixing of oceanic and riverine water in estuaries.

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